Olive oil

Olive oil Extra-virgin olive oil presented with green and black..

Olive oil

Olive oil

Extra-virgin olive oil presented with green and black preserved table olives

Fat composition

Saturated fats

Total saturated
Palmitic acid: 13.0%
Stearic acid: 1.5%

Unsaturated fats

Total unsaturated
> 85%

Monounsaturated
Oleic acid: 70.0%
Palmitoleic acid: 0.3–3.5%

Polyunsaturated
Linoleic acid: 15.0%
α-Linolenic acid: 0.5%

Properties

Food energy per 100 g (3.5 oz)
3,700 kJ (880 kcal)

Melting point
−6.0 °C (21.2 °F)

Boiling point
700 °C (1,292 °F)

Smoke point
190 °C (374 °F) (virgin)
210 °C (410 °F) (refined)

Solidity at 20 °C (68 °F)
1,000 °C (1,830 °F)

Specific gravity at 20 °C (68 °F)
0.911[1]

Viscosity at 20 °C (68 °F)
84 cP

Refractive index
1.4677–1.4705 (virgin and refined)
1.4680–1.4707 (pomace)

Iodine value
75–94 (virgin and refined)
75–92 (pomace)

Acid value
maximum: 6.6 (refined and pomace)
0.8 (extra-virgin)

Saponification value
184–196 (virgin and refined)
182–193 (pomace)

Peroxide value
20 (virgin)
10 (refined and pomace)

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Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by pressing whole olives. It is commonly used in cooking, whether for frying or as a salad dressing. It is also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps, and has additional uses in some religions. It is associated with the “Mediterranean diet” for its possible health benefits. The olive is one of three core food plants in Mediterranean cuisine; the other two are wheat and grapes.
Olive trees have been grown around the Mediterranean since the 8th millennium BC. Spain is the largest producer of olive oil, followed by Italy and Greece. However, per capita consumption is highest in Greece, followed by Spain, Italy, and Morocco. Consumption in North America and northern Europe is far less, but rising steadily.
The composition of olive oil varies with the cultivar, altitude, time of harvest and extraction process. It consists mainly of oleic acid (up to 83%), with smaller amounts of other fatty acids including linoleic acid (up to 21%) and palmitic acid (up to 20%). Extra-virgin olive oil is require